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Genotype-phenotype analysis of recombinant chromosome 4 syndrome: an array-CGH study and literature review

Morteza Hemmat13*, Omid Hemmat2, Arturo Anguiano1, Fatih Z Boyar1, Mohammed El Naggar1, Jia-Chi Wang1, Borris T Wang1, Trilochan Sahoo1, Renius Owen1 and Mary Haddadin1

Author Affiliations

1 Cytogenetics Department, Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute, San Juan Capistrano, CA, USA

2 Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

3 Cytogenetics Department, Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute, 33608 Ortega Highway, San Juan Capistrano, CA, 92690, USA

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Molecular Cytogenetics 2013, 6:17  doi:10.1186/1755-8166-6-17

Published: 2 May 2013

Abstract

Background

Recombinant chromosome 4, a rare constitutional rearrangement arising from pericentric inversion, comprises a duplicated segment of 4p13~p15→4pter and a deleted segment of 4q35→4qter. To date, 10 cases of recombinant chromosome 4 have been reported.

Result

We describe the second case in which array-CGH was used to characterize recombinant chromosome 4 syndrome. The patient was a one-year old boy with consistent clinical features. Conventional cytogenetics and FISH documented a recombinant chromosome 4, derived from a paternal pericentric inversion, leading to partial trisomy 4p and partial monosomy of 4q. Array-CGH, performed to further characterize the rearranged chromosome 4 and delineate the breakpoints, documented a small (4.36 Mb) 4q35.1 terminal deletion and a large (23.81 Mb) 4p15.1 terminal duplication. Genotype-phenotype analysis of 10 previously reported cases and the present case indicated relatively consistent clinical features and breakpoints. This consistency was more evident in our case and another characterized by array-CGH, where both showed the common breakpoints of p15.1 and q35.1. A genotype-phenotype correlation study between rec(4), dup(4p), and del(4q) syndromes revealed that urogenital and cardiac defects are probably due to the deletion of 4q whereas the other clinical features are likely due to 4p duplication.

Conclusion

Our findings support that the clinical features of patients with rec(4) are relatively consistent and specific to the regions of duplication or deletion. Recombinant chromosome 4 syndrome thus appears to be a discrete entity that can be suspected on the basis of clinical features or specific deleted and duplicated chromosomal regions.

Keywords:
Recombinant chromosome 4; Pericentric inversion; Array-CGH; Genotype-phenotype analysis