Cytogenetic analysis in three Bryconamericus species (Characiformes, Characidae): first description of the 5S rDNA-bearing chromosome pairs in the genus
1 Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Biologia, Laboratório de Citogenética, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Av. 24A, 1515, Rio Claro, SP, ZIP: 13506-900, Brazil
2 Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), BR 163, Km 20.2, Mundo Novo, MS, ZIP: 79980-000, Brazil
Molecular Cytogenetics 2013, 6:13 doi:10.1186/1755-8166-6-13Published: 1 April 2013
Nowadays, the genus Bryconamericus is placed in subfamily Stevardiinae within of Characidae, but not shows consistent evidence of monophyletism. The purpose of this work was to study the chromosomes of three species of Bryconamericus, aiming to add cytogenetic knowledge and contribute to the understanding of the chromosomal evolution of this genus.
The chromosomes of three species of Bryconamericus were analyzed using cytogenetic techniques. The karyotype of Bryconamericus stramineus contained 6 metacentric (m) + 10 submetacentric (sm) + 16 subtelocentric (st) + 20 acrocentric (a), the fundamental number (FN) of 84, one silver impregnated (Ag-NOR) pair, one pair bearing the 18S ribosomal DNA sites, another pair bearing the 5S rDNA sites, and a few positive C-bands. Bryconamericus turiuba had a karyotype containing 8 m + 10sm + 14st + 20a (FN = 84), one chromosome pair Ag-NOR, two pairs bearing the 18S rDNA sites, two pairs bearing the 5S rDNA sites, and a few C-band regions. Bryconamericus cf. iheringii had a karyotype containing 10 m + 14sm + 18st + 10a (FN = 94), including one pair with a secondary constriction Ag-NOR positive. In this karyotype the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the 18S and 5S rDNA probe in adjacent position.
The results obtained in this work showed different characteristics in the organization of two multigene families, indicating that distinct evolutionary forces acting on the diversity of rDNA sequences in the genome of three Bryconamericus species.